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Mickelson's Euro-Imperialism
European Imperialism in Africa: Introductory Reading:
By 1875 European possessions in Africa consisted of some forts and trading posts along the coast and a few tiny colonies. Between 1880 and 1910, however, Africa was divided up among the Europeans. For the next 50 years decisions affecting Africa and its people were made not in Africa, but in London, Paris, Lisbon and other European capitals
How Imperialism Spread
European rule came to Africa in many different ways. Sometimes a European trading company made agreements with Africa chiefs permitting the company to trade and keep order in the area. The traders then put pressure on their government in Europe to take over in order to protect them. In a few cases tribal chiefs voluntarily asked for the protection of one European nation in order to avoid being taken over by another European nation. Sometimes the Africans even asked for European protection against other African tribes. Treaties were signed by the African chiefs in which they gave the European company or government the right to keep order (govern) and to take over the land and resources in their area. Thousands of treaties were signed by African rulers giving away most of their rights to the Europeans, but the Africans never really understood these treaties and did not realize what they were giving away.
Reasons for Imperialism.
There are several reasons why the European nations competed with each other to gain colonies in Africa. They all wanted to gain power and prestige. The more territory that they were able to control in Africa the more powerful and important they thought they could become. Africa was tremendously rich in natural resources, which could be brought to Europe and turned into manufactured goods. Europeans also needed markets for their manufactured goods. These goods could be sold in Africa for large profits. Often a European nation would take over territory in Africa simply to prevent another European country from taking it. (Rosenfeld, Erwin and Harriet Geller. Afro-Asian Culture Studies. 1976. (206-208).

Process: As you proceed through this activity, you will investigate the dramatic transformations that imperialism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries brought to the continent of Africa and also the countries that controlled them.
In a Text Edit document on the desktop of this Mac, you will find three documents named Euro-Imperialism In Africa. Choose the correct one for your class period & be sure to put your names at the top. Save your work. You will complete the activities below, be sure to label each activity with its letter and name. If they are not labeled correctly, you will not receive a grade!
A. Reading: “Scramble for Africa”
Click on the link below for the reading and then answer the questions:
NOTE: If the word, name or place is in bold print underlined, click on it and read the information, it will help you answer any questions related to that item.
1. True or False. Illegal slave trade continued well into the 1800s.
2.  What was King Leopold’s role in advancing imperialism in Africa?
3.  Define imperialistic activity.
4.  True or False. Native Africans were well represented at the Berlin Conference.
5.  Define sovereignty.
6.  Who were the Boers and the Zulus?
7.  Why is Shaka Zulu described as legendary?
8.  Who did the Zulus come into conflict with over their lands?
9.  True or False. The Zulus were temporarily successful at holding back aggressors.
10.  What advantages did the Europeans have over the Africans?
11.  List three facts about Cecil Rhodes.
12.  Explain the political carton and its caption.
13.  What caused the Boer War and who won?
14.  True or False. Because European nations carved up Africa with no regard for traditional tribal boundaries, Africa still suffers today.
15.  Define tribalism.
B. Reading: The Berlin Conference of 1884
Based on the reading below, answer the following questions.
1. Define (a.) protectorate and (b.) spheres of influence.
2. List three reasons why Europeans wanted to take over Africa.
3. What was the Berlin Conference?
4. Who organized the conference and what country was the leader from?
5.  How many countries attended?
6. What is “effective occupation?”
7. What considerations were made by the Europeans to the native Africans?
8.  How did Article 34 help to set the stage for world war?  
Because of its size, surface features, climate, resources, and strategic importance, Africa became a prime candidate for conquest by ambitious European empires. Although Africa is physically remote from the power centers of Europe, North America, and Asia, it is surrounded by water and can therefore be reached easily from the other continents. This meant that the Europeans needed to establish rules for dealing with one another if they were to avoid constant bloodshed and competition for African resources. The Berlin Conference established those ground rules.
By the mid-nineteenth century, Europeans had established colonies all along the African coast and competed for control. The push for overseas territories was made even more intense by the Industrial Revolution and the need for cheap labor, raw material, and new markets. The competition between the Europeans often leads to violent conflict.
The conference was held in Berlin between November 15, 1884 and November 26, 1885, under the leadership of German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck. Twelve European nations, the Ottoman Empire and the United States, took part. Although controlling the slave trade and promoting humanitarian idealism were promoted as the focus of the conference, the conference only passed empty resolutions about the ending of slave trade and providing for the welfare of Africa. In truth, the result of the Conference was a method of dividing the continent of Africa between the European powers.
Article 34 of the Berlin Act states: “that any European nation that took possession of an African coast, or named themselves as “protectorate” of one, had to inform the other powers of the Berlin Act of this action.” If this was not done then their claim would not be recognized. This article introduced the “spheres of influence” doctrine, the control of a coast also meant that they would control the hinterland to an almost unlimited distance.
Article 35 determined that in order to occupy a coastal possession, the nation also had to prove that they controlled sufficient authority there to protect existing rights such as freedom of trade and transit. This was called the doctrine of “effective occupation” and it made the conquest of Africa a less bloody process.
The Berlin Act was an important change in international affairs. It created the rules for “effective occupation” of conquered lands, ensuring that the division of Africa would take place without war among the European powers. Through the Berlin Act, the European powers justified dividing a continent among them without considering the desires of the indigenous peoples.
While this appears extremely arrogant to us now, it seemed to them to be the obvious extension of their imperialism. The Berlin Conference is one of the clearest examples of the assumptions and preconceptions of this era, and its effects on Africa can still be seen today.     used with permission from
C. The 'Scramble for Africa’ – Political Cartoon        
Study the political cartoon below and answer the following questions:
1. Make a guess: What is the 'scramble for Africa'?africa%20cartoon.jpg
2. According to the cartoon, which European countries were fighting for a position in Africa?
3. Based on the reading you just did, is the cartoon accurate?
4. Does it really show what was going on at the time? Why or why not?
5. How did the Berlin Conference lead to the situation shown in this cartoon?

D. A Burundi Writer’s Frustrations

Read the excerpt below from an anonymous African writer and then answer the questions that follow:
In Berlin our continent was divided up.
They came to educate us.
They came to civilize us.
The Berlin Treaty has hurt me for a long time.
But the worst of it was that I was taught this date.
Then for a whole hour we were cited, the names of the parties to the Berlin Treaty.
We were told of…
Their exceptional abilities,The courage of their explorers
Their selfless humanism.
But nobody,
Absolutely nobody pointed out the insult,
the shame, which accompanied us Africans everywhere.
My people became a machine.
They were controlled from a distance, they were almost dead.
The awareness of their personality had died away.
My people were colonized.
1.  Using your textbook, define Social Darwinism.
2.  What is the main idea of this reading?
3.  Which two phrases other than the quote below reveal the frustrations and hopelessness of native Africans?
4.  Analyze the following phrase:
Then for a whole hour we were cited,
the names of the parties to the Berlin Treaty.
We were told of…
Their exceptional abilities,
The courage of their explorers
Their selfless humanism.
5.  Describe the feeling you get while reading the Burundi writer’s words.
Extra Credit:

Global Imperialism
By the early 1900s Western European nations had carried out a second wave of imperialism and unfurled their flags over much of the globe. This imperialistic expansion set off radical changes that reshaped the lives of their conquered peoples all over Africa. For the European rulers, imperialism would bring about radical geographical, cultural, political and economic changes at home and as they settled into their new lands.

Below are six links to countries and/or regions that were a part of that world wide scramble for colonies from early 1800s to the early 1900s. Select which four countries/regions you would like to learn about and after reading four of the six articles, write ten quiz questions and their answers for each of the articles. Note: Half of the questions must come from the underlined/bold print words and label each quiz appropriately.

Middle East:

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